What is the bdd cucumber framework?

cucumber framework


In the world of software development and testing, staying ahead of the game is essential. With the ever-evolving landscape of technology, software developers and testers are constantly on the lookout for innovative tools and frameworks that can streamline their processes and enhance the quality of their deliverables. One such powerful tool that has gained significant traction in recent years is the Cucumber framework. But what is the Cucumber framework? How does it work? And what advantages does it offer to software development and testing? In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the depths of the Cucumber framework, explore its features, pros, and cons, and understand how it can transform the way software is developed and tested.

What is Cucumber Framework?

Cucumber is a widely used open-source tool that supports Behavior Driven Development (BDD) in software development projects. Software teams can collaborate and create executable specifications in a human-readable format using Cucumber. Stakeholders, including business analysts, developers, testers, and clients, can easily understand these specifications. Cucumber primarily tests the behavior of software applications and developers often use it in conjunction with other testing frameworks like Selenium, Appium, and Ruby on Rails.

History and Origin of Cucumber Framework

The cucumber framework was first introduced by Aslak Hellesøy in 2008, and it gained popularity among the agile software development community due to its unique approach to specifying software requirements in a natural language format. The developers derived the name “Cucumber” from the idea of expressing software requirements in a crisp and easily understandable way, just like a cucumber.

Features and Benefits of Using Cucumber Framework

The Cucumber framework offers several features and benefits that make it a popular choice among software development teams. Some of the key features and benefits are:

  1. Human-readable format:
    Cucumber uses a simple and easy-to-understand language called Gherkin to define the behavior of software applications. This makes it possible for non-technical stakeholders, such as business analysts and clients, to understand and collaborate on the software requirements.
  2. BDD approach:
    Cucumber follows the principles of Behavior Driven Development (BDD), which emphasizes collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders. This allows for a shared understanding of software requirements and promotes better communication and collaboration among team members.
  3. Reusability:
    Cucumber allows for the creation of reusable step definitions, which are small snippets of code that represent the actions performed in a test scenario. These step definitions make it easy to maintain and update the test scripts as they can be used across multiple scenarios.
  4. Test data management:
    Cucumber provides a flexible way to manage test data through scenario outlines and data tables. This feature enables the creation of data-driven tests, allowing for execution of same scenario with different sets of test data.
  5. Integration with other tools:
    Cucumber easily integrates with other testing frameworks such as Selenium, Appium, and Ruby on Rails, making it a versatile choice for automating testing of web and mobile applications.
  6. Reporting:
    Cucumber provides detailed and customizable reports that help in tracking the progress and results of test executions. This allows for easy identification and resolution of issues in the software application.
  7. Cross-platform support:
    Cucumber supports multiple programming languages like Java, Ruby, and JavaScript, making it a platform-independent choice for software development teams.

How Cucumber Framework Works

Cucumber follows a simple and intuitive workflow that involves defining features, writing scenarios, implementing step definitions, and executing tests. The workflow can be summarized in the following steps:

  1. Define Features:
    Features are high-level descriptions of the functionality of a software application. Developers use the Gherkin language to write software requirements, and they group them under the relevant feature.
  2. Write Scenarios:
    Scenarios are detailed descriptions of the expected behavior of a software application. They are written in the Gherkin language and are grouped under the relevant feature.
  3. Implement Step Definitions:
    Step definitions are small snippets of code that represent the actions performed in a test scenario. They are implemented using a programming language supported by Cucumber, such as Java, Ruby, or JavaScript. Scenarios in the feature file associate step definitions using regular expressions or annotations, and they define the actual implementation of the test steps.
  4. Execute Tests:
    The execution of tests can be done using the Cucumber framework once the step definitions are implemented. Cucumber reads the feature files, matches the scenarios with the corresponding step definitions, and executes the tests. The test executions generate detailed information about the test results in the form of reports.

Writing BDD Scenarios using Cucumber Framework

Writing BDD scenarios using the Cucumber framework involves following the Gherkin syntax, which is a simple and human-readable language. The relevant feature in a feature file contains one or more scenarios that are written in a scenario file. The keywords “Given,” “When,” “Then,” “And,” or “But” are used to write steps in scenarios, followed by a description of the expected behavior.

For example, a simple scenario for testing the login functionality of a web application using Cucumber could be:

Feature: Login
  As a user
  I want to login to the application
  So that I can access my account

Scenario: Successful login
  Given I am on the login page
  When I enter my username and password
  And I click on the login button
  Then I should be logged in successfully

In this example, the Given, When, Then, And, and But keywords represent the different steps of the scenario, and the descriptions following them represent the expected behavior. The implementation code can associate these steps with their corresponding step definitions.

Executing Cucumber Tests

Executing Cucumber tests involves running feature files using a Cucumber runner, which triggers the execution of the associated step definitions. Cucumber supports different types of runners, such as JUnit runner for Java, Cucumber.js for JavaScript, and Cucumber-Ruby for Ruby. Users can configure the runners to specify the location of feature files, step definitions, and other configuration settings.

You can execute Cucumber tests from the command line or by using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) plugin. The software generates test results in the form of reports, which include information about the passed, failed, and skipped tests, as well as other details such as test execution time and test coverage.

Integrating Cucumber with Other Tools and Technologies

Integrating Cucumber with other tools and technologies can easily enhance testing capabilities and improve the overall test automation process. Some of the common integrations with Cucumber are:

  1. Selenium:
    Selenium, a popular open-source automation testing tool, can integrate with Cucumber to perform end-to-end testing of web applications. You can utilize Selenium bindings in various programming languages, such as Java, C#, Ruby, and JavaScript, to implement test scenarios with Cucumber step definitions.
  2. Appium:
    Appium, an open-source tool, integrates with Cucumber for mobile testing on Android and iOS platforms. Appium supports various programming languages, including Java, Ruby, and JavaScript, which can be used in conjunction with Cucumber to write mobile test scenarios.
  3. Ruby on Rails:
    Cucumber has native support for Ruby on Rails, a popular web application framework, making it easy to write and execute tests for Ruby on Rails applications. Step definitions for common Rails actions, such as creating a new record, updating a record, or deleting a record, are directly provided by Cucumber. Test scenarios can utilize these step definitions.
  4. Continuous Integration Tools:
    Continuous integration tools such as Jenkins, Travis CI, or CircleCI can integrate Cucumber to automate the execution of tests as part of the software development process. This allows for continuous testing and faster feedback on the quality of the code changes.
  5. Reporting and Test Management Tools:
    Integration of Cucumber with reporting and test management tools, such as Cucumber Reports, Allure, or TestRail, allows for the generation of detailed reports on test executions, tracking of test results, and management of test cases. These tools provide visual representations of test results and help in identifying and fixing issues quickly.

Benefits of Using Cucumber Framework

The Cucumber framework offers several benefits for software development teams, including:

  1. Improved Collaboration:
    Cucumber encourages collaboration among stakeholders, including business analysts, developers, testers, and product owners, through its Gherkin syntax. This helps in a better understanding of the requirements and promotes effective communication among team members.
  2. Human-readable Scenarios:
    Cucumber scenarios use simple and human-readable language, making it easy for non-technical stakeholders to understand and validate the expected behavior of the software. This helps in reducing misunderstandings and misinterpretations of requirements.
  3. Reusability:
    Cucumber allows for reuse of step definitions across different scenarios and feature files, making it efficient and easy to maintain. This promotes code reusability and reduces duplication of effort.
  4. Test Automation:
    Cucumber enables the creation of automated tests through its framework for test automation, which allows for repeated execution of tests with different data sets. This helps in identifying defects early in the development process and improves the overall quality of the software.
  5. Integration with Other Tools:
    Cucumber easily integrates with other tools and technologies, such as Selenium, Appium, or continuous integration tools, enhancing testing capabilities and improving the overall test automation process.
  6. Readable Reports:
    Cucumber generates detailed reports on test executions, providing insights into the test results and helping in identifying issues quickly. This facilitates informed decision-making and helps in improving the software quality.
  7. Agile Development:
    Cucumber follows the principles of Agile development, such as collaboration, feedback, and continuous improvement, making it suitable for Agile and DevOps environments.


In conclusion, the Cucumber framework is a powerful tool for implementing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) in software development projects. It allows for collaboration among stakeholders, promotes human-readable scenarios, encourages test automation, and provides integration with other tools and technologies. By following the Gherkin syntax and using step definitions, Cucumber helps in writing comprehensive tests that ensure the software meets the expected behavior. Incorporating Cucumber in the testing process can greatly enhance the quality and efficiency of software development projects.

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